Cosmology And Controversy

Cosmology and Controversy PDF
Author: Helge Kragh
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691227713
Category : Science
Languages : un
Pages : 488

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Cosmology And Controversy

by Helge Kragh, Cosmology And Controversy Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Cosmology And Controversy books, For over three millennia, most people could understand the universe only in terms of myth, religion, and philosophy. Between 1920 and 1970, cosmology transformed into a branch of physics. With this remarkably rapid change came a theory that would finally lend empirical support to many long-held beliefs about the origins and development of the entire universe: the theory of the big bang. In this book, Helge Kragh presents the development of scientific cosmology for the first time as a historical event, one that embroiled many famous scientists in a controversy over the very notion of an evolving universe with a beginning in time. In rich detail he examines how the big-bang theory drew inspiration from and eventually triumphed over rival views, mainly the steady-state theory and its concept of a stationary universe of infinite age. In the 1920s, Alexander Friedmann and Georges Lemaître showed that Einstein's general relativity equations possessed solutions for a universe expanding in time. Kragh follows the story from here, showing how the big-bang theory evolved, from Edwin Hubble's observation that most galaxies are receding from us, to the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation. Sir Fred Hoyle proposed instead the steady-state theory, a model of dynamic equilibrium involving the continuous creation of matter throughout the universe. Although today it is generally accepted that the universe started some ten billion years ago in a big bang, many readers may not fully realize that this standard view owed much of its formation to the steady-state theory. By exploring the similarities and tensions between the theories, Kragh provides the reader with indispensable background for understanding much of today's commentary about our universe.



Conceptions Of Cosmos

Conceptions of Cosmos PDF
Author: Helge S. Kragh
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780199665143
Category : Science
Languages : un
Pages : 288

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Conceptions Of Cosmos

by Helge S. Kragh, Conceptions Of Cosmos Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Conceptions Of Cosmos books, This book presents the history of how the universe at large became the object of scientific understanding. Starting with the ancient creation myths, it offers an integrated and comprehensive account of cosmology that covers all major events from Aristotle's Earth-centred cosmos to the recent discovery of the accelearting universe.



Quantum Generations

Quantum Generations PDF
Author: Helge Kragh
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691214190
Category : Science
Languages : un
Pages :

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Quantum Generations

by Helge Kragh, Quantum Generations Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Quantum Generations books, At the end of the nineteenth century, some physicists believed that the basic principles underlying their subject were already known, and that physics in the future would only consist of filling in the details. They could hardly have been more wrong. The past century has seen the rise of quantum mechanics, relativity, cosmology, particle physics, and solid-state physics, among other fields. These subjects have fundamentally changed our understanding of space, time, and matter. They have also transformed daily life, inspiring a technological revolution that has included the development of radio, television, lasers, nuclear power, and computers. In Quantum Generations, Helge Kragh, one of the world's leading historians of physics, presents a sweeping account of these extraordinary achievements of the past one hundred years. The first comprehensive one-volume history of twentieth-century physics, the book takes us from the discovery of X rays in the mid-1890s to superstring theory in the 1990s. Unlike most previous histories of physics, written either from a scientific perspective or from a social and institutional perspective, Quantum Generations combines both approaches. Kragh writes about pure science with the expertise of a trained physicist, while keeping the content accessible to nonspecialists and paying careful attention to practical uses of science, ranging from compact disks to bombs. As a historian, Kragh skillfully outlines the social and economic contexts that have shaped the field in the twentieth century. He writes, for example, about the impact of the two world wars, the fate of physics under Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin, the role of military research, the emerging leadership of the United States, and the backlash against science that began in the 1960s. He also shows how the revolutionary discoveries of scientists ranging from Einstein, Planck, and Bohr to Stephen Hawking have been built on the great traditions of earlier centuries. Combining a mastery of detail with a sure sense of the broad contours of historical change, Kragh has written a fitting tribute to the scientists who have played such a decisive role in the making of the modern world.



The Day Without Yesterday

The Day Without Yesterday PDF
Author: John Farrell
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 9781560256601
Category : Science
Languages : un
Pages : 262

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The Day Without Yesterday

by John Farrell, The Day Without Yesterday Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download The Day Without Yesterday books, A portrait of the founder of modern cosmology traces Georges Lematre's efforts to decipher the nature of the cosmos, his Einstein-rejected model of an expanding universe, and his pivotal contribution to the understanding of the cosmos's origins.



Simply Dirac

Simply Dirac PDF
Author: Helge Kragh
Publisher: Simply Charly
ISBN: 1943657009
Category : Biography & Autobiography
Languages : un
Pages : 119

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Simply Dirac

by Helge Kragh, Simply Dirac Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Simply Dirac books, “What a fantastic entrée into the life of Paul Dirac and the exotic world of Quantum Mechanics, of which he was one of the great pioneers. With its cast of some of the most important scientists of the modern age, this is both an entertaining and an enlightening read.” —Michael White, Bestselling author of 39 books including Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer Paul Dirac (1902–1984) was a brilliant mathematician and a 1933 Nobel laureate whose work ranks alongside that of Albert Einstein and Sir Isaac Newton. Although not as well known as his famous contemporaries Werner Heisenberg and Richard Feynman, his influence on the course of physics was immense. His landmark book, The Principles of Quantum Mechanics, introduced that new science to the world and his “Dirac equation” was the first theory to reconcile special relativity and quantum mechanics. Dirac held the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics at Cambridge University, a position also occupied by such luminaries as Isaac Newton and Stephen Hawking. Yet, during his 40-year career as a professor, he had only a few doctoral students due to his peculiar personality, which bordered on the bizarre. Taciturn and introverted, with virtually no social skills, he once turned down a knighthood because he didn’t want to be addressed by his first name. Einstein described him as “balancing on the dizzying path between genius and madness.” In Simply Dirac, author Helge Kragh blends the scientific and the personal and invites the reader to get to know both Dirac the quantum genius and Dirac the social misfit. Featuring cameo appearances by some of the greatest scientists of the 20th century and highlighting the dramatic changes that occurred in the field of physics during Dirac’s lifetime, this fascinating biography is an invaluable introduction to a truly singular man.



Higher Speculations

Higher Speculations PDF
Author: Helge Kragh
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199599882
Category : Mathematics
Languages : un
Pages : 411

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Higher Speculations

by Helge Kragh, Higher Speculations Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Higher Speculations books, A comprehensive account of highly ambitious attempts to understand nature in its totality, this book covers little known 'theories of everything' from the past as well as modern developments such as the theory of superstrings, the anthropic principle and ideas of many universes. These theories are presented in their historical contexts and used to problematize the limits of scientific knowledge. Do claims of theories of everything belong to science at all? Whichare the epistemic standards on which an alleged scientific theory of the universe - or the multiverse - is to be judged? Such questions are currently being discussed by physicists and cosmologists, butrarely within a historical perspective.



Cosmic Questions

Cosmic Questions PDF
Author: James B. Miller
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 321

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Cosmic Questions

by James B. Miller, Cosmic Questions Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Cosmic Questions books, Examined are recent astronomical findings and developments in theoretical cosmology in order to better understand three broad questions: Was the Universe Created? Is the Cosmos Designed? Are we Alone? The questions are addressed by a broad spectrum of scholars including astronomers cosmologists philosophers and religious scholars who examine the three questions in terms of humanity's place within the universe



Auf Den Schultern Von Riesen Und Zwergen

Auf den Schultern von Riesen und Zwergen PDF
Author: Jürgen Renn
Publisher: Wiley-VCH
ISBN:
Category : Science
Languages : de
Pages : 364

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Auf Den Schultern Von Riesen Und Zwergen

by Jürgen Renn, Auf Den Schultern Von Riesen Und Zwergen Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Auf Den Schultern Von Riesen Und Zwergen books, Dies ist die Geschichte von Einsteins unvollendeter Revolution, einer tiefgreifenden Veränderung unserer Begriffe von Raum, Zeit, Materie und Strahlung. Diese Revolution begann in Einsteins Wunderjahr 1905, wurde durch seine allgemeine Relativitätstheorie aus dem Jahre 1915 fortgesetzt und wirkt in den heutigen Versuchen der Wissenschaft, die Entstehung und das Schicksal des Universums zu verstehen, weiter. Vor dem Hintergrund einer historischen Theorie des wissenschaftlichen Fortschritts wird Einsteins bis heute nicht abgeschlossene Revolution als das Ergebnis einer langfristigen Entwicklung des Wissens verständlich. Anhand der spannenden Geschichte von Einsteins Entdeckungen wird nachvollziehbar, warum große Denker wie Einstein weiter gesehen haben als ihre Vorgänger. Sie standen nicht nur auf den Schultern von Riesen, also den wissenschaftlichen Leistungen einzelner großer Vorgänger wie Newton, sondern auch auf den Schultern von "Zwergen", dem wissenschaftlichen Wissen, dem technischen Wissen, und dem Alltagswissen, das Generationen im Verlaufe der Menschheitsgeschichte angehäuft haben. Zu den "Zwergen" gehören nicht zuletzt Einsteins heute unbekannte Freunde und Helfer, deren Beitrag hier zum ersten Mal umfassend gewürdigt wird.